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The largest National Park Central Balkan's Mountain Reserve Dzhendema turns 71 years old

28 March 2024
Dzhendema reserve in Central Balkan National Park was declared on March 28, 1953 to protect valuable animal species - chamois, deer, roe deer, fawns. With an area of 4,220.2 ha, Dzhendema reserve is the largest Staroplanin reserve and one of the largest in Bulgaria. It is located in the Kalofers' mountain, on the southern slope of the Botev peak's massif. The undisputed wealth is the vast pastures and forests, almost untouched by human hands. Due to its unique geology and climate the area is at the heart of a modern center for the formation of new types of plant communities, rich in endemic and rare plants.
The geology of the reserve is determined by the thrust granite masses, forming a huge tectonic clip with a length of about 30 km, called the Botev peak's thrust, which explains the presence of hundreds of caves and holes such as Deracliy Cave, Rogacheva Cave,  Nikolovi Dupki(Nikola's holes).
Numerous waterfalls, including Golyam (Great) Dzhendemski, Suhoto praskalo (Dry sprinkle), Penchovsko praskalo (Pencho's sprinkle and Raisko praskalo (Heaven sprinkle) (124.5 m) - the highest waterfall in our country, give the characteristic features of the landscape. In the reserve are the river basins of Tundzha, Byala Reka(White river)and Tuzha, along the courses of which the riverbeds form hundreds of pools and water cascades.
The forests are mostly broad-leaved. The dominant species is the beech, in groups or individually there are common hornbeam, water hornbeam and hornbeam, mountain sycamore, hemlock, hemlock, hornbeam, hazel, winter oak, birch, mountain ash, rowan, etc. There are coniferous forests only in the western part of the reserve - in the area of  reserve - in the area of Golyam Dzhendemski(Great dzhnedem's) waterfall and Haidut tepe peak, represented mainly by spruce and single firs. There are few mixed forests, the main species are beech and spruce. From the bushes, there are subalpine thickets of Siberian juniper, lilac, dogwood, hazel, rosehip, thistle.
The flora is diverse - most of the 1,689 species of spore and seed plants are represented. Among them are the conservation-important yellow and spotted gentian, golden-top, as well as the local endemics - Yumrukchal's cap and old mountain primrose.
In the animal kingdom, we find Balkan trout, rain carp, large toad, tree frog and mountain water frog, viper, viper, smoke mouse, shrew, viviparous lizard, etc. Among the numerous species of birds are the Balkan kestrel, yellow-billed harrier, grebe, white-throated thrush, mountain wagtail, great spotted woodpecker, green-backed woodpecker, golden eagle, evening kestrel. The reserve is a refuge for many mammals - wood vole, hedgehog, squirrel and rabbit, wild cat, squirrel, badger, fox, roe deer and wild boar, as well as for symbols of Bulgarian nature - red deer, wolf, brown bear. The reserve is also the kingdom of chamoises in the National Park. They call it Dzhendema (Hell), but for the mountain dwellers - wolves, bears, deer, wild goats, royal and golden eagles and many other living creatures, it is heaven here.
The area of The Heaven Sprinkle and The Heaven Hut is also attractive for mountain lovers. Among the most visited is the tourist route leading to the lodge. The starting point is the Panitsite resort, located 7 km north of Kalofer. It is reached by an asphalt road. Entering the reserve by motor vehicles is strictly prohibited. Traffic is only on the marked paths.
The Byala Reka (White River) eco-trail built by the Park Directorate is very popular. It is located 8 km northwest of Kalofer, near the Kalofer Male Monastery, in the picturesque canyon of the White River. Well-maintained wooden bridges cross the river and gradually reveal some of the beauty of the reserve. The facility is interesting for both adults and children - information boards introduce the wild inhabitants of the area - reptiles, amphibians, plants. The camp of the same name offers relaxation in the area of the trail.